Alina Zaharia1, Irina-Elena Petrescu2

1The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania,; 2 The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania,;

Abstract: The health, environmental and economic issues related in some way to the agri-food systems, which diversified in the context of globalization and technological development, are attracting increasingly more attention from the part of policy makers, economic agents and consumers, by trying to find viable and practical solutions for these challenges. The desideratum of sustainable food, namely healthy, available, sufficient and environmental-friendly food, can be accomplished through innovation, which represents all new functional and accessible solutions. In this context, this paper aimed to create a systematic overview of the state of the art on innovation and sustainability in the agri-food sector, providing practical topics of research results in some countries of Europe. The results indicate a growing interest of the research world on innovation in the agri-food system and the importance of digitization in developing it.

Carmen-Elena Dobrotă[1]

1University of Bucharest,

 Abstract: Organic farming has become a very specialized field for which specific knowledge and technologies are needed. Relevant research directions in this field focus both on the production of new crops and on the improvement and breeding of animals in organic production. The research is directed at increased sustainability, efficiency in using the resources, including water and soil protection, biodiversity, as well as on climate change alleviation and adjustment. The present study aims to analyze the state of research in the field of organic agriculture, respectively the research directions in this field and the funding provided to substantiate, from a scientific point of view, the embracing of organic farming practices by harvesters. The evolution of research will be analyzed and, also, the link between scientific contributions in this field and the level of advancement of organic agriculture in European Union countries.

Vesna Paraušić1, Svetlana Roljević Nikolić2

1Institute of Agricultural Economics, Belgrade,; 2Institute of Agricultural Economics, Belgrade,

Abstract: The “European Green Deal” as a new set of European Commission’s policy initiatives, and the “Farm to Fork Strategy” within this policy, emphasize the importance of sustainable development, circular and resource-efficient economy. “Farm to Fork Strategy” promotes further development of organic agriculture and also contains proposals to improve farmers’ market position in the food value chain. One of the best ways to improve the market position of farmers is the farmers’ associations, primarily producer organizations. The organic farming is one of the rare sectors where small-scale production is not an obstacle to competitiveness and where the increase in assets and funds (consolidation) is not an imperative for market success, so producer organizations represent an ideal type of cooperation, contributing to strengthening farmers’ market position in the organic food supply chain. The authors analyze the concept of producer organizations and the state of their development in the European organic farming sector, to point out the possibilities of further development of organic production together with improving the market position of farmers in this production.

Sorin Gabriel Anton1, Mihaela Onofrei2, Irina Neta Gostin3, Lacramioara Oprică4

1Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Iasi, Romania,; 2 Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Iasi, Romania,; 3 Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Iasi, Romania,; 4Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Iasi, Romania,;

Abstract: The green economy is often considered in the extant literature as a way to reconcile economic development, environmental protection, and social well-being. Its development represents the result of two factors: (1) reaction to climate change and its impact; (2) green entrepreneurship. The aim of the chapter is twofold: first, we present the green economy and the green entrepreneurship; secondly, some megatrends suggesting possible entrepreneurial opportunities in the green economy at the European level are highlighted. The most important megatrends that green entrepreneurs should consider are the following: climate change, public policies for the protection of the environment, crises and government stimulus, and digitalization.

Irina Neta Gostin1, Lacramioara Anca Oprica2, Sorin Gabriel Anton3, Mihaela Onofrei 4

1Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Iasi, Romania,; 2Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Iasi, Romania,; 3Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Iasi, Romania,; 1Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Iasi, Romania,

Abstract: In this chapter, the availability to approach an entrepreneurial activity in the field of organic agriculture among young people European Union in general and Northeastern Romania in particular was investigated. Some examples of successful people (young entrepreneurs in the European Union) in this field were detailed. In order to analyze the entrepreneurial options of young people in Northeast Romania, a case study was conducted, based on the administration of a questionnaire among students and graduates from several universities in the city of Iasi. 250 respondents expressed their point of view on organic farming in general, provided information on their level of knowledge in the field, on future intentions regarding organic farming, and on their perception of how the received education could help them in starting a possible business in the field.

Nicu Marcu1, Georgiana-Raluca Lădaru2, Alina Zaharia3, Maria-Claudia Diaconeasa4

1 The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania,; 2 The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania,; 3 The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania,; 4 The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania,

Abstract: Sustainable development has gone beyond a concept or wishful thinking and has turned into the last resort for ensuring a future on this planet. Therefore, to act in accordance with the sustainable development cannot be pinned as the responsibility of a specific stakeholder, but as a common responsibility from policy makers, businesses, and consumers, together. The matter of who should do most is not yet defined, but it may be simply resumed to doing the most possible by each of the stakeholders. Thinking in business terms, how to develop in a sustainable way must be understood, calculated, and planned, so to see its long-term costs and benefits. Considering the food sector, it may seem that the businesses in this area are safe from such change, since they work with an indispensable product. Nevertheless, competition is present in the food market as well, so to remain in the preferences of the investors and consumers, food business should also adapt to sustainability. The present chapter clears up the meaning of sustainability for the food business; ways of evaluating it and presenting it to the public so to stay competitive and best practices from food business that have already understood the importance of such a strategy.

Carmen-Elena Dobrotă[1]

1University of Bucharest, 

 Abstract: Environmental policies take into account the importance of organic farming in sustainable development and increasing concerns for protecting the environment through the use of agricultural practices, practices that have created the right framework for the advancement of organic farming practices and the resulting products. Globally, there are a number of interventions in the form of state measures conceived to support the development of organic agriculture. With roughly every country on the globe focusing on organic food production and growing demand, shaping government approaches to back up the changeover to organic farming, production and export of these products has become a priority.

Sorin Gabriel Anton1

1Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Iasi, Romania,

 Abstract: Investments in the agri-food sector are considered very risky as climate-related and macroeconomic factors have a significant impact on them. Efficiency in the agri-food sector is a topic of interest for entrepreneurs, academics, and policy-makers.

The chapter aims to clarify the concepts and tools used in the assessment of efficiency in the agri-food sector. Furthermore, we intend to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of some methods used to assess the efficiency of investments in the agri-food sector.

Helena Isidro1

1Iscte- Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal. Business Research Unit (BRU-IUL),

Abstract: This chapter presents the financial reporting rules of biological assets and agricultural activities by companies that prepare financial information using International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). IFRS refer to high-quality global standards of accounting used by listed firms in more than 150 countries. The chapter introduces the concepts of biological assets, agricultural produce, and bearer plants, and discusses the implications of using the model of fair value to measure and report biological assets. This chapter provides examples of reporting practices by European companies.

Jonel Subić1, Marko Jeločnik2, Vlado Kovačević3, Biljana Grujić Vučkovski4

 1Institute of Agricultural Economics, Belgrade, Serbia,; 2Institute of Agricultural Economics, Belgrade, Serbia,; 3Institute of Agricultural Economics, Belgrade, Serbia,; 4Institute of Agricultural Economics, Belgrade, Serbia,

 Abstract: Global trends in the sector of agriculture have forced family farms to look for strengthening of their economic sustainability or even for survival in one of the available alternatives for creating added value. Among the adequate possibilities for creating added value at the farm level, both the implementation of organic production system and additional offering of organic food products gained solely from processing of organic agricultural products, could be found. In line with entrepreneurial spirit and creation of additional income at the farm level, the aim of the chapter is reflected in the assessment of economic effects (based on variable costs) obtained by the use of identical capacities in the processing of conventionally and organically produced apples. In other words, a comparative analysis of the effects of substitution of the production input, with the use of processing capacities for the production of apple chips on a family farm, would be performed. According to the topic of the paper, the evaluation of the results should show whether there is a significant advantage in production of apple chips, obtained from organic apples over conventional raw material base. Substitution of used inputs generates increase in the contribution margin for almost 7.8 times, ensuring thus the boost in the overall farm profit.

Marco Platania1, Zira Hichy2

1University of Catania – University of Winchester,; 2University of Catania,

Abstract: Consumer food behavior studies are a topic addressed in many studies and subject to continuous contributions. The social and economic changes in society push scholars to update their analysis, especially in Europe, a geographical area that is characterized by the production of many quality foods. Some authors also believe that food consumption choices represent an element of European identity. The present chapter aims to illustrate factors driving food consumption in European countries. Indeed, consumers choose their food according various factors, such as personal preference system, reasons of ethics, culture, security, health, prestige or choices for pulse and other factors that are very important in the final choice of foods. The paper presents several quantitative comparisons, and some qualitative interpretations, based on the previous research of several authors. The analysis will try to highlight the main trends in the field of nutrition. Moreover, it takes into account Mediterranean diet and various evidence for its benefit for the health. The results show the great importance of the comprehension of the motivation underlying the buying process and in general of the consumer food behavior.

Marco Platania1, Giuseppe Santisi2, Andrea Zammitti3

1University of Catania – University of Winchester,; 2University of Catania,; 3 University of Catania,

 Abstract: The following chapter aims to investigate the reasons, and therefore the set of psychological determinants, underlying the consumption of the organic products. After having exposed the literature focused on the value of organic production, the chapter explores the theoretical foundations that over the years have driven the interest of researchers on the analysis of the psychological determinants of consumption. Finally, we present the results of an ad hoc survey designed to investigate the motivations which push consumers to buy organic products. The empirical study was conducted on a sample of 239 Italians, voluntarily recruited consumers of organic products, who answered a questionnaire administered online between November and December 2020. The results of the survey, analyzed both quantitative scale (through SPSS ver. 25) and in qualitative key (through NVivo), briefly tell us the motivation for consuming organic products is more significant in the sample of the female population and mainly in reference to the gastronomic sector. Trust in the product and a generic ethical foundation determines this type of consumption, anchoring it to reasons underlying the sustainability of the products and the positive consequences for personal well-being.

Octavian Postolache1, Ștefan Postolache1, Henrique O’Neill2

1ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa and Instituto de Telecomunicações, Lisbon, Portugal,; 2ISCTE- Instituto Universitário de Lisboa and ISTAR, Lisbon Portugal,

Abstract: A review on definitions and perceptions of key food-related topics, such as food quality, healthy food, organic food as well as on instruments of quality assessment was carried out. A research on papers related to food quality assessment, published in Medline database in the last five years was carried out. The study underscores the multitude of techniques and technologies used for detection and quantification of food nutrients/additives/pesticides/ antibiotics/heavy metals content, and detection of allergens and microorganisms in food. Recent advances in technologies for food assessment development pave the way for easier and larger scale information on food, along the food system. Awareness on healthy food, environmental consciousness, and knowledge on techniques and technologies for food quality assessments are changing perception of food.

Maria-Claudia Diaconeasa1, Georgiana-Raluca Lădaru2

1 The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania,; 2 The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania,;

Abstract: The following research aims at presenting the basic role of a rebranding campaign using some of the food products available in Romania, as a case study, for a better exemplification. Defining the main aspects of marketing strategies, branding and rebranding decisions and the role of consumer behavior aim at creating a primary stage of knowledge for the interested readers. The fact that food products are a particular type of products, that satisfy a basic need of every human being transforms them into a particular case to be studied. Even more so in the case of the marketers who should address custom made messages, promoting their products, to their potential consumers, according to their regional specificities and expectations. The chapter allows its readers to understand the main concepts regarding rebranding strategies and, also, to practically understand how the consumer perception on rebranding strategies for Romanian food products may influence future marketing strategies of food companies. As the analysis shows, using consumer-targeted campaigns may ensure the revival of an obsolete brand, while general-messages may contribute to the market rejection of a food product.